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Actinometric observations

Actinometry is a science about the solar, terrestrial and atmospheric radiation in the surface layer of the atmosphere. The measurements of the main elements of radiation (direct solar radiation, diffuse sky radiation, solar output, radiation reflected by Earth, thermal balance of the Earth) are carried out at 11 stations in Belarus. As result of measurement the specialists could make analysis of radiation uptake and dissipation in the atmosphere, radio balance of Earth, atmosphere and etc. The treated information is composed in the climate data sheets.

Aerological observations

Aerology is a science about the methods of free atmosphere exploration. Radiosonde observation gives information about vertical distribution of meteorological features: pressure, air temperature and moisture, speed and direction of wind on different levels of the atmosphere. Radiosonde observation is executed with aerological tools (radiosondes). Upping of the sondes are making with help of special latex balls filled with light gases – hydrogen or helium – which could achieve 35-40 meters in height. Radiosonde measures meteorological parameters in the free atmosphere and transfers it as radiofrequency signal simultaneously. Ground station runs the sounde, receives and records coordinate and telemetrical data. The materials of aerological observations (located in Brest and Gomel) are available for international community and are used for synoptic forecast, are useful for aviation and in other fields of life.

Radiometeorological observations

Radiometeorology explores clouds and atmospheric phenomena connected with clouds with meteorological radar sets. Radar sets are installed in Brest, Gomel and Minsk and allow to explore clouds and accompanying phenomena (precipitation, storm, windflaw).
Radar sets measure two main values: high of the upper limit (H) and the value of reflectivity of the signal on different parts of cloud (Z). This two values allow us to predict rain, storm, windflaw or hailstorm. As well radar sets allow to receive information about cloud diffusion and their development, define speed and direction of clouds motions.
In the Republic of Belarus noncoherent sets produced in USSR are used. Sets in Brest and Minsk are issued in 80-90s. In Gomel MRL-5 is used issued in 1976. These sets are able to find thunder clouds within a radius of 200 meters with 85% confidence. Measurement are made each 3 hours, if necessary – each 30 minutes. In Minsk the radio sets are equipped with automatic system “MeteoCell” and it allows to make measurements each 10 minutes.
In 2006 the radar set in Brest was equipped with automatic system “Aksopri” which allows to make automatic measurements and data treatment. The results of radiometeorological measurements are published in form of flesh-map in the division “Maps” on our web-site.

Hydrological observations

Hydrological observations are making for hydrological elements: water level (8 and 20 hours local time), duty of water in accordance with flow, temperature of water and ice phenomena, total loads on stations.
The first hydrological observations of rivers in Belarus were carried out in the beginning of XVIII century with beginning of shipway development. Generally, it was done on Dnepr, Berezina, Pripyat’, West Dvina, Neman, West Bug. In 1876 stationary observations were started in Bobruysk, Mozyr, Mogilev, Grodno, Vitebsk, Slonim. Belitsa, Stolby, Mosty, Orsha, Zhlobin, Loev, Borisov.
Modern observations are carried at 137 stations (123 rivers and 14 lakes) and at 2 boggy sites. The stations are located throughout the entire territory of Belarus on big and small rivers, on the most significant lakes such as Naroch, Lukomskoe, Osveyskoe, and Chigirinskoe dam lake.The results of Gydrological observations are presented on our web-site as flash-map (Maps – Hydrological information) and in form of tables (Services – Archive of hydrological observations).
The Center is making records of Common State water cadaster in part “Surface water” and prepares Annual report on regime and resources of surface water” which include information on Hydrological regime.
As well editions of specialized observations are daily published on boggy station Polesskaya and on 5 station for observation for free-water surface evaporation. Hydrological stations issue daily forecasts and publish it on web-site POGODA.BY at times (ones a decade at least).
For operational consideration the system was created with allow to observe all changes in hydrological processes and reflect it in the State Water Cadaster of Belarus. The data from the Cadaster are used for solving of questions in hydro technical construction and for better use of water resources of the Republic of Belarus.
As result of annual observations the informational datasheet on rivers, lakes and ect. are created. This datasheet is the basis for reference books, research works, calculations, preparation of ecological bulletin “Environmental status of Belarus”.

Agrometeorological observations

Agrometeorological observations allowto settle the relations between the weather and growing of agricultural crops, agricultural works and implementation of some actions. In Belarus agrometeorological observations are carried out at 54 stations. The network of stations is located in order to control the mail agricultural areas and to receive information about the growth conditions through the territory of the country. All stations control growing of 4-6 main cultures (winter crops, spring crops, green, potato, linen and etc.) with measurement of soil moisture on 3-4 fields.
Agrometeorological stations measure such values as soil evaporation, agrometeorological characteristics of soil, and make tests for new tools and methods. In the period of bad agrometeorological conditions (cold, rains) some additional measurements should be made.
Agrometerological information shall be transferred to agrometeorological specialists and used for operational agrometeorological support. Common data are published in annual agrometeorological reports.This information is used for creation of the reference books on agro-climatic resources of the country. These material are used in order to define average longstanding features of necessity of warm and moisture, conditions for growing of different types of crops and possible effectiveness of actions and etc.

Meteorological observations

Meteorological observations are used in order to receive information for:
- Provision with meteorological information;
- Warning ofhazardous process;
- Provision of forecasting bodies with data about meteorological conditions and information about possible hazardous process;
- Collection and systematization of the information about meteorological regime and climate on the territory of district, region, country.
The first instrumental meteorological observations in Belarus were made in the beginning of the first half of the XIX century.  At the present moment complete meteorological observation are carried out at 37 stations (8 times of observation) and partly observations are carried out on 13 stations and 63 posts. More than 40 valuesareused fortheobservations(temperature, moisture, characteristics of wind, pressure and etc.). The meteorological forecasts could be updated each 3 hours on the basis of these values.
The results of meteorological observations are published in form of flash-maps (division “Maps”). “Weather in Belarus” presents information given by meteorological stations in Belarus, and “Weather in Europe” presents meteorological information about big European cities in accordance with information from stations placed in airports.
Meteorological data in form of tables are placed on our web-site in the division “Services”-“Weather achieve”.
The information for the map «WeatherinBelarus» are taken from 75 stations.The information about the weather in Europe are taken from 150 aerostations.
In order to warn hazardous process or natural disaster all meteorological stations run continuous observations of corresponding processes. Information about it are also published in division “Maps”. This map is composed of information from 80 meteorological stations in Belarus and in the region.